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Energy facts: Oil, natural gas and coal

Accounting for a majority of national primary energy production, petroleum, natural gas, coal and hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGLs) are vital components of Canada's energy mix, and continue to be a leading driver of employment, exports and broader economic activity. Though transitioning towards a low-carbon future will require development of new technologies and alternatives, these fuels continue to play a role in meeting global energy needs.

Learn more about oil, natural gas and coal in Canada in Section 6 of the Energy Fact Book including:

  • Crude oil
  • Natural gas and hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGLs)
  • Refined petroleum products (RPPs)
  • Coal

Key facts

  • Globally, Canada is a leader in oil and gas production, being the fourth largest producer of crude oil, and fifth largest producer of natural gas.
  • 97% of Canada's proven oil reserves are located in the oil sands.
  • Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per barrel of oil produced in the oil sands have fallen 36% since 2000.
  • Canadian refineries can process nearly 1.9 million barrels of crude oil per day.
  • Canada's coal production in 2021 was 48 million tonnes, 57% of which was metallurgical coal used for steel manufacturing.

Access other Energy facts sections